Mehr als 40 Fellows machten sich am Freitag, dem 19.6.2020 auf die Spur der großen Frage nach den Leichtgewichten der Physik. Ein Vortrag zur Neutrinowaage KATRIN mit der KCETA Wissenschaftlerin Prof. Kathrin Valerius eröffnete das Webinar, dann folgte eine virtuelle Tour am Experiment, die Dr. Manuel Klein (KCETA) übernahm. Anschließend erklärte Prof. Michael Kobel (TU Dresden), Projektleiter von Netzwerk Teilchenwelt, eine besondere Eigenschaft der sogenannten "Geisterteilchen". Anhand eines gekoppelten Pendels führte er anschaulich vor, was es mit Neutrino-Oszillationen auf sich hat.
Viele Fragen, viele Antworten, reges Interesse und noch einige Rätsel, die es zu lösen gilt – den beteiligten Wissenschaftlern gelang es, die Neutrino-Forschung direkt zu den Fellows nach Hause zu bringen! Die erfolgreiche Umsetzung dieser ersten online-Version eines Fellow-Nachmittags motiviert zu einer Fortführung dieses Formats.
*Fellows sind Jugendliche und Studierende, die mit dem Netzwerk Teilchenwelt eng verbunden sind und an deren Programmen teilgenommen haben. Das Ziel des Netzwerkes ist es, diesen hochqualifizierten Nachwuchs weiter zu fördern und mit der Forschung in Kontakt zu bringen. Seit 10 Jahren gibt es das Netzwerk Teilchenwelt, welches sich der Vermittlung der Physik der kleinsten Teilchen an Jugendliche und Lehrkräfte verschrieben hat. Weitere Infos zum Fellow-Programm gibt es hier.
On March 5, 2020, Mr. Pascal Revel, Counsellor for Science and Technology of the French Embassy in Germany, and Mr. Hervé Martin, University Tutor for Science Cooperation in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, visited KIT for the first time. Both visitors first had the opportunity to see the KATRIN experiment and to have it explained by Kathrin Valerius and Magnus Schloesser from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IKP). At the subsequent meeting, Andreas Haungs (IKP) and Stefan Bekavac (Division V) presented the KIT Division V - Physics and Mathematics and the planned cooperation project between the Helmholtz Association and the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).
Visit of the KATRIN Experiment
f.l.t.r.: Magnus Schloesser (IKP), Manuella Werp (INTL), Pascal Revel (Counsellor for Science and Technology of the French Embassy in Germany), Andreas Haungs (IKP), Kathrin Valerius (IKP), Hervé Martin (University Tutor for Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg), Klaus Eitel (IKP)
This talk will be held in German language.
KCETA-Wissenschaftler Dr. Andreas Haungs stellt hochenergetische Neutrinos als Tracer der Quellen der allgegenwärtigen kosmischen Strahlung vor und beschreibt die jüngsten Ergebnisse des IceCube-Neutrino-Observatoriums am Südpol.
Mit dem Nachweis der ersten hochenergetischen astrophysikalischen Neutrinos gelang 2013 ein fundamentaler Durchbruch – Neutrino-Astronomie wurde als neues Forschungsgebiet etabliert.
Der 1 km³ große IceCube-Detektor am Südpol wurde 2010 fertiggestellt und nimmt seither kontinuierlich Daten. Im Jahr 2018 konnte dann die erste Neutrino-Quelle durch Koinzidenzmessungen mit Gammastrahlen-Experimenten identifiziert werden. Dieser Triumph der sogenannten Multi-Messenger-Astronomie, d.h. das Zusammenwirken der verschiedenen Boten wie kosmische Strahlung, Neutrinos, Gamma-Strahlung oder auch Gravitationswellen, bildet erst den Anfang der Nutzung des sehr großen Potentials von Beobachtungen hochenergetischer Neutrinos als astronomische und teilchenphysikalische Informationsquelle.
Donnerstag, 19.03.2020, 19.30 Uhr
Planetarium Mannheim, Kuppelsaal
Eintritt 5,00 €
14-16 November 2019
About 300 scientists and guests from all over the world celebrated the 20th anniversary of the Pierre Auger Observatory with a ceremony and a scientific symposium at the site of the Observatory in Argentina. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been built to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays, particles of the highest energies ever observed.
Ultra-High Energy Cosmic-Rays
Cosmic-rays are charged particles constantly bombarding the Earth and are one of the cosmic messengers that help us understand our Universe. At the highest energies, they are not much deflected by the Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, opening up the possibility of a new window in astronomy, the observation of the near-by Universe with charged-particles. The goal of the Pierre Auger Observatory is to study the nature and origin of those ultra-high energy cosmic rays, whose energy exceeds more than 100,000 times the energy that can be achieved in man-made accelerators.
The Pierre Auger Observatory
The Pierre Auger Observatory was conceived by Jim Cronin, Alan Watson and other scientists in 1991 to address the mysteries of the origin and nature of the highest-energy cosmic rays. It was clear to them that only a very large detector would reach the exposure to collect enough events to answer the questions raised by a century of earlier experiments. The Observatory design employs a „hybrid“ detector system consisting of a 3000 km2 array of 1660 particle detectors overlooked by 27 optical telescopes. These complementary detector techniques record both the particles and the faint fluorescence light resulting from the gigantic particle cascade initiated in the atmosphere by these mysterious cosmic rays. Soon after the foundation in 1999, construction of the Observatory started and was completed in 2008.
f.l.t.r.: Roberto Rivarola (Member of Board of Directors of CONICET), Fernando Ferroni (Chair of Finance Board), Ingo Allekotte (Bariloche, Project Manager Pierre Auger Observatory), Jorge Vergara Martínez (Mayor of Malargüe), Paula Nahirñak (Sub-secretary of State in Secretariat for Science and Technology), Osvaldo Calzetta (President CNEA), Ralph Engel (KIT, Spokesperson Pierre Auger Observatory), Alberto Etchegoyen (CNEA, Site Spokesperson), Julio Cobos (National Senator for the Province of Mendoza), Laura Montero (Vice-governor of the Province of Mendoza), Ernesto Maqueda (CNEA), Alan Watson (former Spokesperson Pierre Auger Observatory) (© Miguel Martin)
Scientists of the 90 participating institutes and groups, as well as representatives of all 17 member states of the international collaboration met in Malargüe, Argentina in mid-November to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the experiment as well as the scientific results achieved so far. A scientific symposium opened the festivities and highlighted the state of research. On the second day, the participants visited the detectors of the Observatory in the Argentine Pampa. Many of the scientists and guests participated also in the parade for the anniversary of the city of Malargüe. The meeting continued with a ceremonial act at the campus of the Observatory. Venerable members of the collaboration as well as representatives of funding agencies and local politicians addressed the audience and congratulated the collaboration not only on the scientific successes, but also on the social relevance and impact of the project in the province of Mendoza. One highlight of the ceremony, which was moderated by the spokesperson of the collaboration, Prof. Dr. Ralph Engel from KCETA/KIT, was the conferral of the status “Honorable Senator” to the Pierre Auger Observatory by the Senate of Argentina. After unveiling a sculpture by Juan Pezzani symbolizing the role of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, the meeting concluded with a dinner banquet with typical Argentine barbecue and wine.
Among the high-ranking guests were numerous representatives of the supporting funding agencies, participating universities and institutes, as well as members of the Argentine federal and province governments. In Germany, groups of RWTH Aachen, Universität Hamburg, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Universität Siegen, and Bergische Universität Wuppertal participate in the Pierre Auger Observatory, of which representatives attended in the celebration. KIT was represented by the KIT Vice President for Research, Prof. Dr. Oliver Kraft, the Head of Division V, Prof. Dr. Johannes Blümer, and the Head of the Department for International Affairs, Dr. Klaus Rümmele.
A Bright Future
Spurred by the science results obtained so far, the Observatory is currently undergoing an upgrade („AugerPrime“), mostly aimed at improving the sensitivity of the observatory to the particle type and mass of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This is done by installing new electronics, and additional and complementary detectors, allowing for a better separation of the type of the incoming particle on an event-by-event basis. The added observables are critical to select the subset of particle cascades that were produced most likely by lighter primary cosmic rays, which in turn may hold the key to identifying and studying the cosmic accelerators outside our own galaxy. More generally, the data collected with AugerPrime will also be used to explore fundamental particle physics at energies beyond those accessible at terrestrial accelerators, and perhaps yield the observation of new physics phenomena.
In October 2019 the move of the imachination labs into the new premises in the 'Villa Baron von Oppenau' was celebrated. Cosmic Revelation transforms the two towers into flickering light sculptures in the evening hours in order to carry the studio's work to the outside. In this cooperation with astroparticle physicists of KIT, the entry of the invisible cosmic rays is measured live on site and converted into light. The installation can currently be seen on weekends in the evening hours.
From September 11-13, 150 physicists from German research institutions met at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) for their annual meeting. The participants are involved in the large-scale CMS experiment at the European CERN laboratory near Geneva or carry out theoretical calculations for it. At the workshop, the latest scientific results were exchanged and joint strategies coordinated.
The CMS experiment at CERNl explores the fundamental building blocks of nature and their interactions. The highlight of this research to date has been the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. Physicists from KIT, RWTH Aachen, Hamburg University, Münster University and the German Electron Synchrotron DESY have been making major contributions to this major basic research project for many years.
The workshop was opened by KIT Vice President for Research, Prof. Oliver Kraft. Among the guests were the scientific speaker of the CMS experiment, Prof. Roberto Carlin (Padua), representative of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, but also young students of the nationwide "Particle World Network".
"The workshop offers our participants many opportunities for networking. This is particularly important for young researchers writing their master's or doctoral theses," said Prof. Ulrich Husemann of the KIT Institute for Experimental Particle Physics, the workshop leader.
More information: www.fsp104-cms.de
In a colloquium on September 16, 2019, the KATRIN Collaboration presented its new limit for the neutrino mass in the FTU at the North Campus of the KIT. With lectures by Christian Weinheimer, Guido Drexlin, Kathrin Valerius, Susanne Mertens and Thierry Lasserre and a press conference, the extremely impressive result was presented, that far exceeded all expectations.
On October 9 and 10, the International Days will take place at KIT under the motto "Karlsruhe and the World". The program includes workshops, lectures, awards, an exhibition and much more related to the international activities of KIT and its partners. We would be very pleased if you could note the date and the event (Save the Date) and register soon!
KCETA will be represented by lectures by Prof. Guido Drexlin (9th Okotber 12:30 - 13:30), Dr. Erik Bründermann (9th October 16-17) and Prof. Ralph Engel (10th October, 10:15-11:15).
On the occasion of this year’s 50th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing, Parrotta Contemporary Art shows the exhibition "From the Rocket to the Moon" in Cologne and Bonn. The works shown reveal various aspects and associations that illuminate the themes of "rocket", "moon", and "space". A broad visual spectrum is opened up, covering the entire universe – from the tiniest elementary particle to the unfathomably large galaxy.
The lightning and sound sculpture by Tim Otto Roth "Cosmic Mirror" (2008/2019) , which was realized in collaboration with KCETA, provides a concrete physical reference to the universe. The energies of the cosmic rays, which constantly strike our planet from outer space, brightly discharge once or twice a second and become visible and audible.
See our video impressions:
Gallery Cologne 31.5. – 27.7.2019
Opening: Friday Mai 31, 2019, 6 – 9 pm
Gallery Burg Lede Bonn 1.6. – 27.7.2019
Opening and Summer Party: Saturday June 1, 2019, 4 pm – Midnight
On 23 January 2019, KCETA again presented an event for the Karlsruhe public in the series "KIT im Rathaus". There were lectures on the topic "Forschung an Superbeschleunigern":
In addition, welcome addresses by Gabriele Luczak-Schwarz (First Mayor of the City of Karlsruhe) and KIT Vice President for Research Prof. Dr. Oliver Kraft.
An accompanying exhibition took place in the upper foyer of the town hall from January 21-25, 2019. Besides many posters, we exhibited models of the IceCube experiment, the KATRIN experiment, the CMS experiment, the Pierre Auger observatory and the FLUTE experiment.
On 20 November 2018, the inauguration of the Helmholtz International Research School for Astroparticle Physics and Enabling Technologies (HIRSAP) took place at the Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM) in Buenos Aires. At Campus Miguelete, guests and representatives of the two participating universities UNSAM and KIT came together to officially start off the graduate school in a festive event.
From Germany Dr. Ilja Bohnet (Research Fellow Matter of the Helmholtz Association), Prof. Thomas Hirth (Vice President for Innovation and International Affairs at KIT), Prof. Johannes Blümer (Head of Division 5 at KIT), Prof. Ralph Engel (Spokesperson of HIRSAP at KIT), and scientists from KIT participated in the event.
From Argentina the participants were Jorge Tezón (Manager of Scientific and Technological Development at CONICET), Prof. Carlos Greco (Rector of UNSAM), Prof. Alberto Carlos Frasch (Vice Rector of UNSAM), Prof. Alberto Etchegoyen (Spokesperson of HIRSAP at UNSAM/ITeDA) and scientists from UNSAM.
The first PhD students of the school were also on site to present themselves and their research topics in a PhD workshop. In this way, all participants were given the opportunity to gain an overview of the diversity and complementarity of the topics of the doctoral theses and to get to know the doctoral students better.
On the German side, the opening ceremony of the HIRSAP already took place in April 2018 at KIT.
Jun.-Prof. Susanne Westhoff
Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg
Dr. Veronika Haug
BOSCH, Zentralbereich Forschung und Entwicklung
Prof. Stephanie Hansmann-Menzemer
Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg
Dr. Iris Gebauer, KIT
Mittwoch 7. November 2018, 17:30 - 19:00, im Anschluss Empfang
KIT Campus Süd
Otto-Lehman-Hörsaal, Gebäude 30.22
Engesserstraße 7, 76131 Karlsruhe
KCETA celebrated its 10th anniversary on October 26, 2018 at the Otto-Lehmann lecture hall. Among numerous interesting talks Julius Wess awardee Prof. Francis Halzen gave the keynote talk.
Please find more details about the program here.
The WDR-mouse opens doors: On the mouse fan door opener day, children can take a look behind doors that conceal something interesting but are normally closed. This year with the participation of the KCETA Institute for Beam Physics and Technology (IBPT).
IBPT staff introduced the young researchers to the secrets of modern technologies. Under the motto "As fast as light - on the trail of racing particles", the mouse fans carried out small experiments and found out what telephone, microwave and vacuum cleaner have to do with particle accelerators. Accompanying parents could use the time to learn more about KIT and its work for science and society.
"It was an exhausting but also very successful day for everyone involved," said Professor Anke-Susanne Müller, Director of the IBPT and co-organiser of the KIT contributions. She reported on enthusiastic feedback from parents: "In a few years my daughter will be back here - for studying!
"Die Zukunft der Teilchenphysik – was kommt nach dem LHC?"
Dr. Marcel Stanitzki (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and Spokesperson of the SID Collaboration) addressed this forward-thinking topic in a very interesting public lecture.Date: October 1, 2018 at 7:30 p.m.
"Leicht, leichter, Neutrino - Elementarteilchen auf der Waage"
This was the title of a public talk given in the frame of the workshop "Invisibles18" (see below) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
In the Tulla lecture hall, which was filled to capacity, Prof. Susanne Mertens of the TUM fascinated the Karlsruhe public with her insights into the largest and smallest structures of the cosmos and into the large-scale experiment KATRIN located at Campus North.
The Invisibles18 Workshop took place at KIT from September 3 - 7, 2018. The associated Invisibles18 School took place the week before, from August 27 to August 31, 2018, at the TUM Science & Study Center Raitenhaslach in Burghausen, Germany and was organized by the Max Planck Institute for Physics and TU Munich.
The focus of the workshop was on the physics of the "Invisibles":
The Invisibles18 Workshop was organised in the context of the Horizon 2020 funded projects ELUSIVES (674896-ELUSIVES-H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015) and InvisiblesPlus (690575-InvisiblesPlus-H2020-MSCA-RISE-2015), which focus on Neutrino and Dark Matter phenomenology and their connection, with emphasis on the role of the symmetry relating matter and antimatter. It was the seventh thematic workshop in the series initiated in connection with the past ITN project INVISIBLES.
More information on our indico website.
On June 11, 2018 the official Inauguration of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment KATRIN took place at KIT Campus North. The event marked the start of the long-term data taking to measure the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with unprecedented sensitivity.
After numerous short greetings, which looked at the experiment from very different angles, there was an entertaining stage show by Stella and Nova presenting spectacular physical experiments, until finally the ceremonial opening of the data acquisition took place at the push of 15 buttons.
In the afternoon, the event continued with a symposium with lectures by Nobel Prize winners Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald as well as Hamish Robertson, Christian Weinheimer and Guido Drexlin. The lectures highlighted the important role of neutrinos in particle physics and cosmology and showed memorable milestones of KATRIN.
The important bi-yearly conference Neutrino 2018 was held in Heidelberg. It was organized in common by KIT and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (MPIK) Heidelberg. Several PIs of KCETA/KATRIN were involved in the Local Conference Committee of this intriguing event which also included an excursion day to KATRIN at KIT.
"Did you already dream about the stars as a child and wanted to become an astronaut? Were you seriously disappointed with your astronomy and physics lessons at school and did you choose another profession? Only to read (astro) physics books after work and watch "Star Trek" or "The Orville" or "Big Bang Theory". Do you recognize each other? Then we have the right thing for you this summer: "Astrophysics in series". Four programs dealing with the universe - from theory to practical star observation."
With this teaser, Campusradio Karlsruhe launched a series of live-programmes on the big questions of the universe on May 16, 2018. The guest of the first show was KCETA-PI Prof. Thomas Schwetz-Mangold.
The next dates:
Wednesday 20 June 2018 and Wednesday 25 July 2018
The programmes will be broadcast live on VHF 104.8 at 10 a.m. and simultaneously via the webstream of Campusradio Karlsruhe. There are repeats at 3 pm (only webstream of Campusradio Karlsruhe) and several times a week.
On April 17, 2018 the first kick-off event for the Helmholtz International Research School for Astroparticle Physics and Enabling Technologies (HIRSAP) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM) in Buenos Aires (Argentina) took place at KIT.
It started with welcome talks by KIT Vice President Research Prof. Oliver Kraft and by UNSAM Vice Rector Prof. Alberto Carlos Frasch followed by introductory talks by the KIT head of division 5, Prof. Johannes Blümer, by Spokesperson of HIRSAP at KIT Prof. Ralph Engel, and by Spokesperson of HIRSAP at UNSAM/ITeDA Prof. Alberto Etchegoyen from Argentina. Two PhD students of the existing program Double Doctoral degree in Astrophysics (DDAp), Isabel Astrid Goos (CNEA/IB, Bariloche), and David Schmidt (KIT), presented some special insights in their impressions and experiences in the cotutelle program. Finally the keynote speaker Dr. Walter Winter from DESY gave a very interesting talk on “Multi-Messenger Astroparticle Physics”.
The aim of the Helmholtz International Research School for Astroparticle Physics and Enabling Technologies is the development and application of cutting-edge particle detection techniques and corresponding analysis methods in high-energy astroparticle physics. The graduate school concentrates on the investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. It has an interdisciplinary character by bringing together leading physicists and engineers of the fields of particle detection technologies, data analysis, and model building.
The school builds on a long-standing and very fruitful collaboration between the partner institutes and the existing cotutelle program Double Doctoral degree in Astrophysics (DDAp).
More information about the event at KIT
Presse Release of the Helmholtz Association
On the third Nacht der Wissenschaft at KIT from November 24 to 25, 2017 between 8 p.m. and 4 a.m., many exciting lectures from more than 10 departments were on the program for interested citizens of Karlsruhe.
Three KCETA researchers were also present:
LHC at CERN: On the trail of the Big Bang with major collisions
Speaker: Prof. Dr. Thomas Müller
KCDC - Discover astroparticle physics from the sofa
Speaker: Dr. Andreas Haungs
Higgs particles and the building blocks of the universe
Speaker: Dr. Matthias Schröder
The nature of dark matter in our universe is one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in cosmology and particle physics. Within the framework of the "Dark Matter Day", which is being held worldwide, two KIT researchers, both of whom are actively working in this exciting field, summarized our current knowledge of this mysterious form of matter and presented new experiments with which the secret of dark matter is to be uncovered.
The interest of the Karlsruhe public was so great that the NTI auditorium on Campus South was filled to the last seat and no more standing room was available.
After a welcome address by Prof. Marc Weber, Prof. Thomas Schwetz-Mangold spoke on the topic "Dark Matter - from Big Bang, Galaxies and Elementary Particles" and then Prof. Guido Drexlin on "Dark Matter - Experiments in the Mine, in the Laboratory and in Space".
In September 2017 the second collaborative research workshop of KCETA and the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (INPAC) at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) took place. The main task was to explore the competence and expertise in China in the research fields of KCETA and to establish personal contacts for later cooperation. The workshop was supported by the successful DAAD proposal of the KIT service unit "Internationales (INTL)" for the reinforcement of the cooperative partnership with four selected universities from the province of Jiangsu and also in the area of Shanghai (SJTU, NUST, SUDA, TUS).
On July 13, 2017 took place the inauguration of the FLUTE facility at Institute for Beam Physics and Technology (IBPT), Campus North.
The focus was on the innovative, artistic presentation of the FLUTE. The event was opened with the official greeting by President of the KIT Prof Holger Hanselka. KIT Vice President Research Prof Oliver Kraft warmly welcomed the inauguration guests in the official start of the Test Facility.
The presentation of the award took place on March 3rd, 2017. In a festive event Prof. Klanner received the award from Prof. Oliver Kraft (Vice President for Research, KIT), accompanied by a very appreciated talk by Prof. Rohini Godbole from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangelore ("Higgs-Boson and the Physics beyond the Standard Model"), an introduction to the KIT Center KCETA by Prof. Marc Weber (Scientific Spokesperson of KCETA) and the laudatio by Prof. Thomas Müller (KIT). After the presentation of the award Prof. Klanner gave a highly esteemed talk on "Silicon Detectors: From the early days to the LHC and XFEL". The Ensemble Claribel pleased the audience with musical contributions by Mozart, Paganini and Brahms.
With great pleasure we nominated Robert Klanner for the 2016 Julius Wess Award in recognition of his fundamental contributions to the development of silicon microstrip detectors, in particular for achieving for the very first time the resolution required to reconstruct secondary vertices from the decay of heavy-flavoured hadrons. With this development Robert Klanner initiated the culture of flavor-tagging in particle physics. Robert Klanner (together with Gerhard Lutz and the late Josef Kemmer) worked in the early 1980s on the development of a Silicon strip detector using the planar process developed at the Semiconductor Laboratory of MPI Munich.
In the paper “A silicon counter telescope to study short-lived particles in high-energy hadronic interactions”, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 205 (1983) 99, Klanner et al. describe for the first time a working detector with 5 μm spatial resolution as required for secondary vertex reconstruction. Soon after, in the paper “Silicon detectors with 5 micrometer spatial resolution for high- energy particles”, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 217 (1983) 224, they showed the first reconstructed secondary vertices from charmed meson decays.
The work was the founding block for the rapid development of micro-structured silicon detectors in High Energy Physics, for secondary vertex tagging and nowadays also for large-area tracking detectors, in particular the LHC detectors ATLAS and CMS. Silicon tracking detectors are present in any modern particle physics experiment. Without this detector type many major discoveries and important measurements would not have been possible, among them heavy quark physics at LEP, the discovery of CP-violation at the B- factories and the discovery of Bs oscillations. One of the most important discoveries of the past 20 years, the top quark at the Tevatron, was only possible through the employment of secondary vertex tagging. Also for the future of High Energy Physics this kind of instrumentation will remain invaluable, such as for searches for new particles and for studying the Higgs boson in the b decay channel. As such, silicon microstrip detectors revolutionized the field of experimental High Energy Physics to at least the same extent as the invention of multi-wire gaseous detectors by G. Charpak and F. Sauli in the late 1960s and 1970s.
Robert Klanner continued to work on silicon detector development with continuously strong impact on the field until today, including his studies on fundamental sensor properties like radiation effects, and helped pave the way to physics at the next generations of experiments.
Beyond his seminal work in instrumentation, Robert Klanner also held several very important management positions. He started his career in the early 70-ies and obtained his PhD in Nuclear Physics in Protvino, USSR. He then accepted a postdoc position and later an Assistant Professorship at the University of Illinois, Urbana, and joined the Max-Planck- Institute in Munich in 1975. In 1984 he moved to DESY to contribute to the construction of the HERA experiment ZEUS. Robert Klanner was spokesman of the Na11 experiment which discovered Open Charm in fixed-target events by means of silicon strip detectors. In 1996 he became Professor at the Universität Hamburg. From 1999 to 2005 he served as the Research Director of DESY. For many years Robert Klanner was project leader of the ZEUS calorimeter, one of the most powerful and innovative hadron calorimeters at the time and a defining subdetector of the ZEUS experiment. He also served as the physics coordinator and spokesperson of ZEUS. Robert Klanner had been a long-term member of the Vorstand of the German Physical Society DPG and a co-editor of the scientific journal “Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A”.
With this exhibition Lise Meitner, one of the most important female physicists of her time, was honoured. It is a shining example of how women break new ground and make breakthroughs in science.
Together with Lise Meitner, other female physicists were portrayed. In personal reports, they explained their scientific career, their fields of research and their wishes.
The central aim of the exhibition was to encourage young people, especially young women, to devote themselves to physics and to inspire them for the MINT subjects (mathematics, computer science, natural sciences and technology). Physics is an important part of our culture and also offers excellent career prospects. There are currently around 5,000 vacancies for physicists in Germany alone. This number corresponds to two complete graduate classes in physics.
The exhibition was initiated by the DPG and the Austrian Physical Society and funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). It is part of the "National Pact for Women in MINT Professions" launched in Germany by the BMBF.
The exhibition opened on January 27, 2017 with a vernissage and could be visited until March 5, 2017 at the KIT Campus South in the foyer CFN.
Prof. Dr. Manfred Popp will give a lecture on November 30th at 4 p.m. in the IKP auditorium on the topic "Because it is not allowed to be what cannot be... corrections to the history of science about "Hitler's nuclear bomb".
"When I wanted to start the planned history of the (Core) Research Centre Karlsruhe with a prologue on the'predecessor organisation', the'Uranium Association' during the Second World War, growing doubts arose from reading the specialist literature as to whether it really could have been as it has been in the history books for over 25 years: The construction of a German nuclear bomb in the'Third Reich' had not taken place for economic reasons alone, the German physicists had known enough to be able to build it. After careful study of the original documents, I have come to the conclusion that this is not true. An article by me was published in the journal'Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte': (Link). A short version can be found in'Spektrum der Wissenschaft digital', another article will be the title story of the December issue of'Spektrum der Wissenschaft'. I will present these results on 30 November and put them up for discussion."
On November 10 and 11 the Institute for Theoretical Nuclear Physics will organize a Symposium on "Precision versus Energy, Present and Future Colliders" to honor Prof. Johann Kuehn's 70th birthday.
For details, see https://www.ttp.kit.edu/symposium
Cosmic revelation is presented in the context of the light art festival "Aufstiege" from 17 September until 09 October 2016 at the SV SparkassenVersicherung headquarter in Stuttgart.
The four stairwells that form the four corners of the SV SparkassenVersicherung headquarters in Stuttgart are lit up in red. Now and then there is a flash of white light. On the roof a bright narrow light beam reaches up to the sky, pointing out that this illumination comes from the earth's atmosphere. Sixteen highly sensitive detectors designed by scientists of KCETA are measuring cosmic radiation in real time. When it penetrates the earth's atmosphere it leaves behind a cascade of invisible particles, which become visible as flashes of light in the stairwells.
The project is both an experiment and a piece of light art. It has arisen from a collaboration between Tim Otto Roth, an artist from the Black Forest region, and astroparticle-physicists at KCETA.
Cosmic Revelation makes this hidden exposition to those cosmic energies not only visible, but above all it is translated into a spatial and bodily experience.
The four illuminated stairwells and the skybeamer at the SparkassenVersicherung building in Stuttgart.
(© imachination projects)
ISAPP is a network of 36 European doctorate schools and institutes from nine European Union countries plus Russia and Israel. ISAPP’s main goal is to create a real astroparticle community amalgamating the elementary particle and astrophysics communities. Every year, the ISAPP European network organizes schools in astroparticle physics at the doctoral level for experimentalists, observers and theorists.
The present year the school is devoted to the discussion of Cosmic Ray physics in the energy range from a fraction of GeV to more than one TeV.
More information on the ISAPP website.
Since they entered the world of particle physics in 1930 with a hypothesis by the theoretical physicist Wolfgang Pauli, neutrinos have been regarded as mass-free and hardly detectable "ghost particles". It is indeed notoriously difficult to capture them in detectors - but since the findings of the neutrino oscillation experiments that won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2015, we know that neutrinos must have a mass. However, this is tiny compared to the masses of other particles, which puzzles the scientists.
With the KATRIN experiment, the world's most accurate particle scale is currently being developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, with which an international team of researchers finally wants to track down the mass of neutrinos. Among other things, the scientists use a 24 m long and 10 m diameter stainless steel tank under high voltage, in which ultra-high vacuum also prevails. This is only one of many technical challenges that physicists have to face in order to solve the mystery of the neutrino masses.
On May 2, Kathrin Valerius, head of the Helmholtz-University Young Investigators Group KATRIN, presented exciting things about the huge particle scale to a broad audience with curiosity and interest in physics at the University of Stuttgart.
Click here to record presentation
The workshop is organized jointly by Dr. Loredana Gastaldo (U Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics) and Dr. Kathrin Valerius (KIT, Institute for Experimental Particle Physics).
The program is aimed at bringing together researchers from different areas of direct neutrino mass searches to discuss recent developments of experimental efforts in this highly active and fast-evolving field. A main focus is on facilitating in-depth exchange of experience among experimentalists from different backgrounds (notably, the tritium _-decay and 163Ho electron capture communities) through individual contributions, free discussion, and in small working groups. Furthermore, we intend to foster exchange with leading theoreticians in the field, in particular in view of further exploiting the excellent physics potential of upcoming precision experiments.
A brief description of the workshop scope and objectives can be found here.
Joint Colloquium of KIT and the University of Heidelberg on February 5, 2016
Iris Gebauer, KIT, on the topic "Four Years AMS-02 on the International Space Station"
Introduction: Wim de Boer
The "Night of Science" at KIT took place for the first time on the night of January 29 to 30, 2016. In exciting lectures, lecturers from various KIT departments gave insights into their subject area. Between the lectures, visitors and lecturers were able to exchange new insights over meals and hot/cold drinks.
The theoretical astroparticle physicist and KSETA Principal Investigator Prof. Dr. Thomas Schwetz-Mangold reported on:
Neutrino oscillations, Schrödinger's cat and the origin of matter
Where is the origin of all matter? To answer this question, he undertook a journey into the world of the smallest particles. The neutrino is one of the most common particles in the universe and it penetrates normal matter practically without interaction. The discovery of neutrino oscillatins, which won the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics, proves that neutrinos have a (albeit tiny) mass.
This has fundamental effects in cosmology and elementary particle physics and brings about a decisive equilibrium. Why all this plays a decisive role for our existence (and for Schrödinger's cat) was explained in this lecture.
On November 4–6, 2015 the first collaborative research workshop of KCETA and the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (INPAC) at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) took place. The main Task was to explore the competence and expertise in China in the research fields of KCETA and to establish personal contacts for later cooperation. The workshop was supported by the successful DAAD proposal of the KIT servcie unit "Internationales (INTL)" for the reinforcement of the cooperative partnership with four selected universities from the province of Jiangsu and also in the area of Shanghai (SJTU, NUST, SUDA, TUS). The initial impulse was the strategy of the KIT presidium to strengthen the cooperation with China on a wide base.
Eleven PhD students of the Karlsruhe School of Elementary Particle and Astroparticle Physics (KSETA) together with nine more scientists of KCETA came to Shanghai in order to present their research and to exchange with their chinese collegues.
After Prof. Xiangang He (INPAC) and Dr. Irmgard Langbein (KCETA) had given a general overview, the first day focused on astroparticle physics with talks on dark matter, cosmic rays, and neutrino physics. The next morning was marked by talks about elementary particle physics, outlining theoretical as well as experimental aspects. Detector technology, electronics and the big infrastructures were introduced in further talks in the afternoon. There were also contributions of participants of Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Peking.
On both days the participants had the chance to discuss intensly with the PhD students their reseach project. On Thursday night the workshop was complemented with a two hour colloquium with Prof. Mühlleitner and Prof. Müller on theoretical and experimental aspects of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider, where teams of KCETA as well as of SJTU do research.
Overall the workshop was on a very high scientific level and the participants were impressed about the amount of common features, which lead to significant possibilities for cooperation in various fields. German as well as Chinese PhD students expressed their interest in a research stay in the respective other country.
The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world’s leading science project for the exploration of cosmic rays. More than 500 scientists from 16 countries have been working together since 1998 in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, to elucidate the origin and properties of the most energetic particles in the Universe, coming to us from the far reaches of the cosmos.
The AugerPrime upgrade to the Observatory enhances the 1660 existing surface detectors with new scintillation detectors, so that electromagnetic and muonic shower particles can be separated more efficiently.
A symposium, held on November 15-16, 2015 gathered collaborators and science funding agency representatives for the signing of a new international agreement for continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2025.
The EFFEKTE science festival has now come to a successful close.
On the open day, interested visitors of all ages from Karlsruhe visited the KCETA information stand in the mathematics building. In addition to spectacular experiments with liquid nitrogen and the "destruction" of foam kisses in a vacuum cylinder, an octocopter developed by KIT was also on display. On the Teilch-O-Mat, everyone was able to find out in a personality test which of the elementary particles suits him best and have an appropriate button made. Of course, there was also information about KCETA's diverse participation in major international experiments on elementary particles and astroparticles.
Kids & Kosmos was the name of our hands-on exhibition and it was a hit with children and young people between the ages of 6 and 19. Enthusiastic young researchers, young and old alike, were looking for answers to questions such as: What is our universe made of? What is Dark Matter? Where does cosmic radiation come from? Who lives in the particle zoo? Why is the Higgs particle so special? Solar system model, rallye, planet path, handicrafts, dark (liquorice) matter and much more did not let boredom arise!
In the exhibition "Huge experiments for small particles", exhibits and posters of all large-scale experiments in which KCETA is involved were on display. A full-scale model of a Pierre Auger Observatory tank, a Tunka-Rex antenna, models from EDELWEISS, FLUTE and KATRIN and, the star of the exhibition, a model of the CMS detector, in which the proton beam and individual detector parts illuminated at the touch of a button. Among other exhibits, non-stop videos provided information about the various KCETA experiments. If you had any questions, you could contact competent exhibition supervisors at any time.
We reported here about the exhibition "Art of Science - Beauty in Creation".
Despite the heat, there were many interested people who took part in two tours of the KATRIN large-scale experiment at Campus North to learn more about the huge scale for the lightest particle, the neutrino. A journalist from "Die Welt" was also present and reported.
The "Wissenschaft Live" event was a very special one. Everyone could be present in a lecture hall when we went live to the control rooms of major international experiments. Scientists from the CMS experiment (CERN, Geneva), the EDELWEISS experiment (in a highway tunnel near Modane, 1600m below a mountain), the Pierre Auger Observatory (Malargüe, Argentina) and finally the KATRIN experiment at KIT, Campus North, explained how to "control" your large-scale experiment. We were able to see the scientists and their colleagues live at work. Finally, there were many questions from the audience, which were answered by the scientists on site.
Finally, there were a whole series of highly interesting popular science lectures, which were very well attended:
"Physik am Samstag"
"Particles and Universe"
"Tracking down the great mysteries of astroparticle physics"
"Higgs - or how particles get to their mass"
"Physik am Samstag"
Three of the lectures took place as part of the "Science Tuesday" in the pavilion in the Schloßgarten:
"The Image of the Universe comes from Karlsruhe"
All photos: Astrid Chantelauze and Beatrix von Puttkamer (KIT)
On Friday, 26.6.2015 the exhibition "Art of Science - Beauty in Creation" was opened with a vernissage. After greetings by Prof. Johannes Blümer, Mayor Wolfram Jäger and Prof. Thomas Müller, Dr. Michael Hoch gave an introduction to the exhibition and the art project "art@CMS", of which he is the initiator. Michael Hoch, physicist at CERN and photo artist, wants to initiate a sustainable dialogue between scientists in particle physics, the art world and educational initiatives.
In his own works, Michael Hoch portrays the CMS detector from an artistic perspective with the help of alienated photographs and collages. Besides him, three other artists had travelled to the exhibition and presented their works to the visitors of the vernissage in short lectures: Lindsay Olsen (USA), who uses materials to artistically process the standard model of particle physics; the photographer Bree Corn (Austria), who portrays scientists and captures their scientific statements and dynamics in photographic art; and finally Chris Henschke (Australia), who combines art and science with the help of experimental combinations of digital media.
The exhibition was on display in the foyer of the CFN building (30.25) on Campus South until July 11.
In the series "KIT im Rathaus", the Lord Mayor of Karlsruhe and the President of KIT invited to an event on January 20, 2015 in the Bürgersaal in Karlsruhe City Hall on the topic "News from the World of the Smallest Particles".
The citizens of Karlsruhe found the research in particle and astroparticle physics so exciting that they flocked to the city hall and set a new visitor record for the series "KIT im Rathaus".In addition to greetings by Wolfram Jäger (First Mayor of the City of Karlsruhe) and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Detlef Löhe (Vice President for Research and Information at KIT), the following presentations were given:
"Introduction to the KIT Center for Elementary Particles and Astroparticle Physics"
Prof. Dr. Johannes Blümer
Head of the Institute of Nuclear Physics and Scientific Spokesman of KCETA and KSETA
"Neutrinos on the pan of KATRIN"
Dr. Kathrin Valerius
Head of Helmholtz-University Junior Research Group KATRIN, Institute of Nuclear Physics
"The discovery of the Higgs particle or how the particles get their mass"
Prof. Dr. Margarete Mühlleitner
Institute of Theoretical Physics
"How elementary particle physics algorithms can save tens of millions"
Prof. Dr. Michael Feindt
Institute of Experimental Particle Physics
All presentations have been recorded and are online.
The Julius Wess Award 2014 was dedicated to Prof. Dr. Arkady Vainshtein, who holds the Gloria-Lubkin-professorship at University of Minnesota. Arkady Vainshtein received the award as one of the most influential theoretical particle physicists of the second half of the 20th century.
The award ceremony was held on December 5, 2014 at KIT. More ...
On November 12, 2014 scientist, photographer and artist Michael Hoch (CERN) gave a talk on "Art@CMS – a novel way to achieve a sustainable inspiration in public for science".
Michael Hoch was born in Vienna, Austria, where he studied Sports and Physics at the University of Technology and the University of Vienna. During his studies and work as trainer he was concentrating his photographic art work on human movements and architecture. Later coming to Geneva to make his PhD at CERN he started to work on his long-term project, "Where Science Meets Art".
With two public evening lectures and an Astroparticle Slam, astroparticle physicists in Karlsruhe informed about the structure of the universe and current research.
New windows on the universe have been opened by researchers in recent years. Elementary particles from the most energetic objects in the cosmos such as black holes, supernova remnants and active galaxy nuclei allow conclusions to be drawn about fascinating processes. The latest findings were presented at three free public events:
Public Astroparticle Slam
Monday, 29 September 2014
In only eight minutes, eight doctoral students of astroparticle physics presented their research: entertaining and understandable, curious and transverse. Read here which of the lectures the audience selected as the overall winner.
Public Evening Lecture
The galaxy in a new light: astronomy with gamma rays
Prof. Werner Hofmann (MPI for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg)
September 30, 2014
Over the last decade, astronomy has opened a new window into space: extremely high-energy gamma rays. Gamma rays allow astrophysicists to search for exotic dark matter in the cosmos or to scan the structure of space and time on the smallest scales. The energy of such gamma quanta is 1000 billion times higher than that of visible light; they can no longer be generated by thermal processes - the radiation of hot bodies - but show us another aspect of the universe: the "non-thermal universe". Special instruments, such as the H.E.S.S. telescope system in Namibia, can be used to visualize the "traces" that gamma quanta leave behind when they hit the Earth's atmosphere. The surprising result of the work of the last decade is that a multitude of such extreme radiation sources exist in the cosmos and that these probably influenced the evolution of the cosmos.
Public Evening Lecture
Cosmic particles: Reading invisible fonts
Prof. Elisa Resconi (TU Munich)
October 1, 2014
To understand the universe and decipher its complex blueprint, physicists use telescopes and detectors to observe the sky. The fantastic images of shining galaxies are well known. Light, electromagnetic radiation, is a familiar cosmic information source; others, such as neutrinos or cosmic radiation, are less so. We can only directly observe the processes inside stars and active galaxies with the help of neutrinos - even if some of the particle properties of neutrinos are still a mystery to us. Cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos give us information about the most energetic processes in our universe. Only if we evaluate all these sources of information can we "read" the construction plan of our universe.
Please find information hier.
A travel to the past to plan the future
In the week of March 31 – April 4, 2014, the CMS collaboration met at Karlsruhe Institute für Technologie, KIT.
With the goal of expanding the physics reach of its experiments, the Large Hadron Collider in its Phase 2 will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity that is an order of magnitude higher than what will be achieved in the upcoming runs from 2015 onwards. In order to exploit the full power of the accelerator and to survive the hostile high radiation environment as well as to meet the challenge of reconstructing the more than 100 interactions that will occur at each bunch crossing, the detectors at the LHC need to undergo an extensive upgrade programme. At this collaboration meeting in Karlsruhe, which was organised by long-term CMS member institute Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), 264 experts from the CMS collaboration from 80 institutes all over the world congregated to exchange ideas and to plan the ambitious upgrade of the detector.
The five day conference was focused on the preparation of a Technical Proposal to be submitted to the LHCC at its September session. With 130 presentations in plenary and parallel sessions, accompanied by eight management meetings, the CMS week provided a unique opportunity to review the motivations for the proposed upgrades and to consolidate the organization of the R&D programs. The engagement of the collaboration has recently escalated and tremendous progress was reported, demonstrating all the strength of the CMS upgrade program to fully exploit the HL-LHC in its most challenging physics potential. The new light Tracker, with selective read-out at 40 MHz for the purpose of enabling a hardware trigger, and the extension of coverage in the forward region, in conjunction with a high resolution and fine granularity endcap calorimetry, in order to discern Vector Boson Fusion or Scattering processes, are among the major innovations foreseen for the future detector. Many new ideas to provide enhanced background reductions, mitigate the effect of pile-up and improvements in the acceptance to various physics signals were also discussed.
To take a break from these intense discussions and the long meeting days, the collaboration took a trip into the past by riding on a 90 year-old steam train into the Black Forest. 30 km south of Karlsruhe, the small spa town of Bad Herrenalb (home town of the organiser of the CMS Week, Thomas Muller) welcomed the visitors with a traditional Schwarzwaldabend. Accompanied by regional food, the participants enjoyed presentations by the local Hornblowers and traditional dancers. Another highlight of this evening was the award of a CMS model that was laser-engraved into a crystal to Simon Weingarten from RWTH Aachen for the best poster presented at the meeting.
Please find many more pictures here.
The Julius Wess Award 2013 is dedicated to Prof. Takaaki Kajita, ICRR Tokyo, for his outstanding credits in the field of neutrino physics, particularly for the discovery of neutrino oscillations with the Super-Kamiokande detector. The ceremony will take place on December, 19 at KIT, Campus South.
As part of the monthly events of the Astronomische Vereinigung Karlsruhe, Prof. Wim de Boer, KIT, will give a lecture at the Museum of Natural History on December 9, 22013 on
"AMS-02, a space experiment on the International Space Station in search of dark matter"
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 was flown with the space shuttle Endeavour from the space station Cape Canaveral (Florida) to the International Space Station ISS on May 16, 2011. Since then, it has been investigating the composition of cosmic cosmic cosmic radiation with unprecedented precision. In the foreground is the search for antimatter, as it is expected within the framework of cosmological models as a relic from the Big Bang. AMS-02 is also intended to answer questions about the nature of dark matter. Scientists from Aachen and Karlsruhe are in charge of the experiment in Germany. First results, published in summer 2013, will be presented.
On Dec. 2 - 4, 2013, the 7th Annual Helmholtz Alliance Workshop on "Physics at the Terascale" will be held at KIT, Campus North. The workshop with 250 participants aims at bringing together the whole Alliance community, reviewing the status and progress of the research topics and discussing future directions and projects. The organisation has been shared between the Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP) of KIT and DESY.
The Alliance “Physics at the Terascale” or short “TERA” was created by the Herlmholtzgemeinschaft in 2008 in order to optimally place German particle physics in a global research environment and to bundle the German activities in the field of high-energy collider physics. It is a network comprising all German research institutes working on LHC experiments, a future linear collider or the related phenomenology - 18 universities, two Helmholtz Centres (DESY and KIT) and one Max Planck Institute. The Alliance includes the following topics: development of new accelerator and detector technologies, methods of data analysis, development of theoretical models and methods and development of the relevant computing infrastructure.
An important aspect of the Alliance is the creation of common infrastructures. All partners of the Alliance contribute to and use these infrastructures for specific research projects. One of the structures is the Radiation Study Center at KIT, coordinated by the Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, to simulate and analyse conditions in hostile radiation environments expected by detection systems at the High Luminosity LHC.
More information may be found in https://indico.desy.de/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=8029.
Ultra-high energy cosmic rays are measured using the fluorescence technique by several air shower experiments. For a proper reconstruction of the extensive air shower, the yield of the air fluorescence and its dependence on particle energy and atmospheric parameters have to be known. To push this field forward and expand our knowledge about air fluorescence, this series of workshops was started in 2002.
The main goal of this workshop is to continue the fruitful discussions of the past nine years between scientists performing air fluorescence studies and air shower analyses. The practical benefits of this meeting are the exchange about theoretical aspects as well as on experimental experiences. Driven by the common goal to reduce uncertainties in the energy calibration of cosmic ray experiments, the workshop is going to support achieving an improved understanding of air fluorescence. Developing an up-to-date fluorescence yield parametrisation that can be used as an experiment-independent standard parametrisation for better comparison of UHECR measurements will be a break through in astroparticle physics.
The ISAPP Summer Institute (SI) will be held from July 20th to August 7th, 2009 at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). It is organised within the KIT Center Elementary Particle and Astroparticle Physics (KCETA). Most activities of the SI will take place at the Campus South and Campus North of KIT.
The Summer Institute offers participation in current research projects within KCETA. It addresses PhD students in theoretical and experimental particle & astroparticle physics. The participants will gain insight into the ongoing research, get know-how on experimental techniques via specific SI projects which are embedded into the current work programme at KCETA.
The programme of the SI consists of introductory seminars into the fields of particle and astroparticle physics as well as the specific research projects and experimental techniques. The SI is focussed on individual participation of the students in research projects such as Auger, CMS, EDELWEISS, KASCADE-Grande, KATRIN, LOPES, grid computing and data processing & electronics.
To ensure a most efficient course, the number of participants in the SI is limited to 25.
A network of European Doctorate Schools has organized a common curriculum in Astroparticle Physics. On the basis of agreements among these schools, specialized courses concerning Astroparticle Physics are organized in a common International School on Astroparticle Physics (ISAPP), while bilateral or multilateral student exchanges concerning the research activities in this field are also possible, in view of their thesis preparation.